Above written are some of the obvious test of increase in business efficiency which in turn ensures smooth functioning, proper growth and prosperity. Self-coordination involves functioning of each department in such a way that each department coordinates with other departments. The basic objective of all managerial functions is to get things done by coordinate efforts. The modern thinking is that co-ordination is not an independent function which can be performed separately. The various principles of coordination, according to Mary Parker Follet, may be listed thus: In the first principle, Mary Parker Follet states that coordination can be achieved by direct contact among the responsible people concerned. Imagine you and an accomplice are arrested for murder. It involves synchronization of the activities and efforts of individuals in various departments, plants, and offices of an organization. Comprehensive programmes and policies are used for solving routine and repetitive problems faced by different departments. This job is accomplished by the manager. Co-ordination is an orderly arrangement of efforts to provide unity of action in the fulfillment of common objective whereas co-operation denotes collective efforts of persons working in an enterprise voluntarily for the achievement of a particular purpose. It is accomplished by means of planning, organising, actuating and controlling.”, Ordway Tead has said – “Co-ordination is the effort to ensure a smooth interplay of the functions and forces of all different component parts of an organisation to the end that its purpose will be realised with a minimum of friction and a maximum of collaborative effectiveness.”. These roles typically include coordination and facilitation of care, utilization management, discharge planning, denial management, avoidable day management, and some aspects of quality management. For example, when A works with B and he, in turn, works with C and D, each of the four, find themselves influenced by others that is influenced by all the people in the total situation. Obviously, when members are involved in goal-setting, coordination problem is ninety percent solved. Coordination plays a very important role in every field of human activity. Co­ordination through co-operation and willingness ensures better results. George R. Terry, in his book Principles of Management has said – “Co-ordination deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure successful attainment of an objective. This promotes interaction, cooperation and understanding amongst members of various departments and promotes coordination. Their problems difficulties, management’s expectation from them, solving their problems, exchanging various ideas, opinions, points of view, problems, and solutions are effectively discussed and resolved in such meetings. Co-Ordination by Special Coordinators: In big industrial concerns, along with various managers, a project coordinator is appointed. The overall task of management is to co-ordinate and integrate or blend these differences into one united wholeness. Cooperation without coordination has no fruit and coordination without cooperation has no root. In modern days this technique is not considered good, since, it neglects significance of human relations. Coordination enables an organisation to use its resources in an optimum way. It usually focuses on inventory management and ordering decisions in distributed inter-company settings. A company may adopt any type of technique from the above. make the coordination perfect. Coordination is a system evolved deliberately by the managers. Liaison or Relationship Roles 13. Coordination is a managerialfunction in which differentactivities of the business areproperly adjusted and interlinked. Coordination between production and marketing departments at the same level or organizational hierarchy is an example of horizontal coordination. In fact, co-ordination makes planning more purposeful, organisation better-knit and control more regulative, it is the key to the process of management. Copyright. Authority flows from top to bottom through various positions. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility 5. 7 Examples of Digital Channels. Personal contacts should be encouraged as it is the most effective means of communication for achieving coordination. example, lowering the costs of coordination between firms may encourage more market transactions (i.e., more "buying" rather than "making") and, at the same time, closer coordination across firm boundaries (such as "just in time" inventory management). Unity of purpose is a must for achieving proper coordination. The problems and nature of human beings are so complicated that they always present problems of co-ordination. And when sub-division of work is not possible then co-ordination becomes compulsory. Any person(s) performing the liaison role will necessarily face conflicting performance-expectations from the interdependent departments. In case it does not do so, it will have to wait to produce to meet the increased demand. Sometimes, project coordinators or discipline coordinators are appointed to ensure that the project is completed in time within the constraints of budgeted resources and that discipline is maintained throughout the organisation. Plagiarism Prevention 5. Privacy Policy Coordination can be effective, if the superior establishes and maintains direct personal contact and direction with his subordinates. If each department is handed a task to be completed within a given period, coordination will be much easier. By implementing these measures all activities are converted into achieving co-ordination in the business enterprise. Coordination between individuals in a group; ii. 3. In organisations where simple and routine activities are performed, rules and procedures provide established standards of performance. Controlling is not an independent work. Those functions include planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and staffing. They understand and adjust with each other by developing mutual trust, cooperation and understanding. The line of authority and responsibility should be clearly defined to achieve coordination. On these objectives he bases his policies and programmes to be implemented and carried out. The management can arrange the departments in such a way so as to get better coordination among the departmental heads. (v) A forum is created in which friction points or areas of inadequate coordination are brought into the open. They should always be in tune. Periodic staff meetings can be highly effective in promoting coordination. For example, a problem which equally affects Production Department and Sales Department may be resolved through intervention of the general manager who is the common supervisor for both departments and, therefore, has the requisite authority to resolve any problems between them. When all the activities of the organisation are properly correlated there will be least delay which will bring efficiency in the business organisation. A specialist may follow his own line and may not appreciate the point of view of others. It is only through co-ordination that the total accomplishment in the organisation can be brought about. General Techniques 2. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility: There is a line of authority in every enterprise which indicates as to who is accountable to whom. But practically manager get things done through other people and in fact here he heaves a sigh of relief. In this article about we will discuss about the coordination in management. (a) Determines the standard of work to be done by the personnels; (b) Evaluates the work and conduct of those who are working under him; (c) Explains the policies and programmes; and. Effective coordination techniques includes Direct Contact, Group Meetings, Organizational structure, Committees, staff meeting, Leadership, communication etc. Effective communication is the key to proper coordination. Co-ordination is an orderly arrangement of efforts to provide unity of action in the fulfillment of common objective whereas co-operation denotes collective efforts of persons working in an enterprise voluntarily for the achievement of a particular purpose. Here, external environment consists of outside parties who are interested about the affairs of the organization (such as Government, customers, investors, suppliers, competitors, etc.). Menu. Therefore, a manager must select the right number of executives in various positions with the right type of education and training so that they may willingly co-operate and co-ordinate. Dictionary ... An example of coordination is when a gymnast walks on a tightrope without falling. Characteristics 5. An effective co-ordination helps in increasing the efficiency of the business enterprise which brings growth and prosperity to the enterprise. If organisation is structured in a manner that different units carry out all functional activities (production, finance, marketing and personnel) with respect to their units independently, the need for coordination gets reduced. They normally work in staff capacity to facilitate the working of line managers. Often individuals are pursuing narrow personal interests by sacrificing organizational interests. 11 Examples of Quality Requirements. These are: Mooney considers co-ordination as the very essence of organising. Recommended. For example, the purchase and sales departments have to coordinate their effort so that supply of goods takes place according to purchase order. Coordination ends only after the control function. In this paper, I use coordination theory to analyze the software change process of a large mini-computer manufacturer. (5) Retention of Good Personnel in Business: Sound co-ordination has a significant effect on the development and retention of good personnel in business. 2. The need for coordi­nation is not only job related but also relationship oriented. These “soft” skills are essential to leadership, team-building, and the creation and maintenance of strong, effective professional relationships. The channels of communication used in the enterprise should be reliable so that they are able to create proper understanding in the minds of the receivers. Horizontal coordination between various departments is essential for synchronization of diverse activities of an organization. However, mere communication does not work unless there is a proper organizational climate in which each one sees the integration of his objectives with organizational objectives and also the benefits of his department with others. Disclaimer 8. An efficient manager can perform his coordination function in the following ways: i. Lateral relations refer to relations between peer groups of different departments. It ensures that the various levels act according to organizational prescriptions. It helps an organisation in the following ways: Coordination pulls all the functions and activities together. 1. Moreover, all liai­son persons may not be equally competent to handle all the problems between interdependent departments. (5) It aims at the attainment of common purpose as defined by the objectives of the enterprise. Vertical coordination is aimed at linking activities at higher levels and lower levels of the management for the achievement of the organizational objectives. Ideally co-ordination spreads throughout all managerial activities. Under this function the manager does the following work: (a) Selection, training, payment of salary, evaluation, promotion, retrenchment and retirement of workers; (b) Establishment and development of a better system of communication; (d) Associate the staff in managerial decisions. Coordination is impossible without cooperation. On the other hand, supervisors also play an important role in coordination. Therefore, it is the role of the management to coordinate the actions of employees who work in a different department, and there is little communication between them. This refers to the coordination between different levels in the organization. The organizational activities are to be networked and the network should continue uninterruptedly so as to ensure continuous workflow. Systems approach, thus, ensures better coordination. Weekly group meeting or conference of the departmental heads under the chairmanship of the general manager is a very effective device for co­ordination, suggested by Henri Fayol. Besides co-ordination of activities which serves as a-general control measure, “Budgetary control” devices including budgets such as production budget, cash budget, capital budget, sales budget etc., play a major role in controlling the plan activities. Sometimes, individuals fail to understand how the achievement of organizational goals will satisfy their own goals. There are differences of opinion and values, conflicts of priorities and of goals. This helps in avoiding interper­sonal conflicts. In this review we begin by discussing the origins of interest in coordination, tracing some of the classic perspectives. His main duty is to co-ordinate various activities relating to a particular project. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility: Is Co-Ordination and Co-Operation Inter-Changeable, Advantages of Good Co-Ordination System – Increases the Efficiency, Improves the Morale and Develops and Retains Good Personnels. This facilitates coordination at inter-departmental level. This results in ineffective coordination. 10. It provides them an opportunity for direct contact, asking them how the things are going on. The lines of authority and responsibility of each individual member of the organization must also be spelt out clearly. Poor co­ordination is caused quite often by lack of understanding of who is to perform what or due to the fact that the manager did not clearly delegate authority and exact responsibility. In this view, the design of a process depends on the coordination mechanisms chosen to manage dependencies among tasks and resources involved in the process. It is inter-related rather mixed with every function of management. It is the product of efforts undertaken in the enterprise. Direct contacts also help wither away the contro­versies and misunderstandings. Coordination must be accompanied by cooperation. State Bank of India branches or Wimpey’s restaurants, are examples of pooled interdependence. It ensures that individuals work as group for promoting their individual and organisational goals. Management relies on the coordination of multiple functions to ensure success. Effective Communication – An effective system of communication is the key to proper co-ordination. 3. Management has to secure effective co­ordination of human efforts and non-human resources. Generally, in large organizations, special coordinators are appointed. 5. Co-ordination can easily be achieved if managerial functions are properly designed and executed. “Committees are usually formal organised groups with a designated membership and chairperson and regularly scheduled meetings.” Committees are formed to solve specific organisational problems like leave committee. regarding their activities. Prohibited Content 3. Balancing and  a Few Others. 3. Leave committee, for instance, looks into leave cases of employees of all departments. A manager can achieve vertical coordination by using his authority and issue orders and instructions to his subordinates to act in a coordinated way. It refers to coordination among the activities of a manager and his subordinates. This particular department may not be having control over the other departments. Effective Communication 8. Further, the need for co-ordination arises because of conflict between line and staff. Effective Leadership and Supervision 9. Communication without distortions, gaps etc. Management functions, therefore cannot remain in isolation. Precise and Comprehensive Programmes and Policies – Laying down well-defined programmes and policies is another measure for achieving effective coordination. Therefore coordination should be dynamic. 5. (3) Develops and Retains Good Personnels: Co-ordination helps in evaluation of work and conduct of all those who are working for the enterprise. These three are: (c) Defining authority and responsibility. The fourth principle, advocated by Follet, is that co­ordination is a continuous and never-ending process. Uploader Agreement. The organization of the differentelements of a complex body oractivity so as to enable them towork together effectively. Similarly, harmony and sweet voice in music cannot be achieved by the orchestra party unless an orchestra conductor co-ordinates the activities of the group members. The basic responsibility of the cell is to collect the relevant information and to send this to various heads of departments or sections so that inter-departmental work and relationship are coordinated. It enables various groups of people working in the organization to work harmoniously to achieve the goals. Every manager is required to perform the function of coordination. At the top level, the chief executives will co-ordinate the activities of functional or departmental managers. General organisational meetings and information meetings, i. ‘Coordination is balancing and keeping the teams together and seeing that working activities are per­formed with due harmony among members themselves.’ – [E.F.L. A manager achieves co-ordination through the management process and co-ordination is the outcome of managerial functions. GAVI’S APPROACH. It is important to the success of any enterprise. The primary reason for coordination is that departments and workgroups are interdependent. Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy (3) Co-Ordinating activities must respond to time, policies, programmes and objectives. Departmentation is done on the basis of functions products, customers, territories and so on. Clear-cut authority relationships help in reducing conflicts among different positions (particularly line and staff) which is essential for sound coordination. iii. There should be a clear line of authority in every organization which indicates who is accountable to whom. It defines the activities of the enterprise in terms of individual tasks and the activities that are grouped into homogenous work units and authority positions. (5) It should be based on personal contact, Mumbai co-operation, mutual confidence, good human relations and above all on the continuity principles. (4) Co-Ordinating approach should be balanced and as far as possible it should be of both the types – vertical as well as horizontal. Effective Communication – Effective communication is the key to proper coordination. Advantages 11. How to use coordination in a sentence. Content Filtration 6. Co-operation can be obtained by encouraging informal contacts, participation in management, and using committees for exchange of ideas and views at the top level. It is managers’ duty to see that the co-ordination exists in the entire organisation although he cannot order for it. In order to harmonize the activities of the organization, it is indispensable to see that everybody in the business understands the main objectives of the business and works towards their achievement in active cooperation with others. The management can arrange the departments in such a way so as to get better coordination among the departmental heads. Specific Techniques 3. iii. Effective leadership ensures coordination both at the planning and the implementing stage. Coordination is the art of achieving har­mony of group efforts for the accomplishment of organizational goals. 5. The greater the interdependence between depart­ments, the more coordination, the organisation demands, if departments are to be able to perform effectively. (iv) Coordination is an All Pervasive Function: Pervasiveness refers to that truth which is applicable to all spheres (business and non-business organisations) and places uniformly. But modern thinking does not conform with the thinking of Koontz and O’Donnell. 3. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Co-ordination is a process of deliberately bringing the efforts of various components of an enterprise in order to give them a unity of purpose. Clearly Defined Goals – The goals of the enterprise should be laid down clearly. It is essential for the survival of an organisation. We conjecture that the existence of coordination risk may contribute to bullwhip behavior. Coordination is essentially the glue that binds organizations together and guides the individual departments, working towards organizational goals and strategies. Putting in Place Clear-Cut Rules and Procedures 10. That is why, co-ordination is not a separate function of management because achieving of harmony between individuals efforts towards achievement of group goals is a key to success of management. Clearly Defined Goals 4. The following steps are generally followed for achieving effective coordination: The objectives (or goals) of the organization should be laid down clearly. The plans should be coordinated with the environmental factors. in order to avoid any problem that may arise in future. In the social sciences, coordinated management of meaning (CMM) provides understanding of how individuals create, coordinate and manage meanings in their process of communication.Generally, it refers to "how individuals establish rules for creating and interpreting meaning and how those rules are enmeshed in a conversation where meaning is constantly being coordinated". " People issue orders according to their position to ensure that work is done according to rules and policies. All this leads to harmony and unity in working. 2. Pooled interdependence means that each department is part of the organisation and contributes to the common good, but each department is relatively independent because work does not flow between units. (6) It should aim at morale boosting of the workers. The top boss fixes targets for all the departments and entrusts the job of fulfilling them to his subordinates’ i.e. Co-ordination, as a tool of control technique, monitors the tasks and operations without the knowledge of employees. This, in turn, helps in meeting goals efficiently and effectively. Mangers use a variety of techniques in the business organisation to achieve co-ordination. Good communication is of great help in the co-ordination of various activities. 7. Almost all managerial functions directly affect co-ordination, for example planning, organisation, departmentation, supervision, leadership and control. Group Meetings – The managers and other officials meet to discuss common problems of organisation and the top management will provide solutions for smooth working. It involves synchronization of different actions, so that planned objectives can be achieved with the minimum of conflict. The department of coordination may be staffed with specialists in fields such as production, mar­keting, finance, etc., and the head may be asked to report directly to a top manager. • It is the common thread that runs through all activities such as … It is an orderly management of group effort to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose. Hence, coordination is the function of correlation and integrating the diverse goals, activities and approaches to bring about commonality of goals and unity of efforts. Clearly defined goals – The goals of the organisation should be laid down clearly. If the operations of an organization are diversified and complex, then the need for coordination is felt every­where. The manager can also clearly define the work of his subordinates, their role, function, and timing of performing the work, in order to achieve co-ordination. The absence of this will create improper condition and atmosphere in which it would be difficult for any person to stay for long in the organisation. Alvin Brown goes a step further when he brings self-co-ordination into picture and describes it as “the efforts of independent responsibilities to achieve harmonious or reciprocal performance of their own responsibility.” With the advent of self-co-ordination concept into co-ordination the “essence of managership” losses its importance and ‘self-co- ordination’ with an active assistance of the manager gains importance. In the same manner, to synchronize the activities of different departments, like purchase, sales, production, finance etc., in a business organisation, coordination is required. If the policies and procedures are in consistent with objectives, it will create problems to the business concern. Liaison – A PRO or Liaison … Co-ordination is an abstract of management. Systems approach, thus, enables management to find out the loopholes in the system and instantaneously, rectify the particular sub-part, which is not in order. Case examples and Additional resources. Coordination should be dynamic in order to foresee the environmental changes and infuse their consequences into the network of organizational activities before the competitors adopt it. Generally organizations are groups of interdependent departments. Designing an organisation to take care of recipro­cal interdependence is not an easy task. Coordinating long-linked units requires careful planning by the manag­er. They provide timely and useful guidance to departmental managers who need their assistance. Coordination ensures that activities of each individual, group and department are headed towards the common goal. The individuals in the organisation must be willing to help each other voluntarily. Concrete examples of risk management. In order to obtain co-ordination while organising, the manager must look at it, both vertically and horizontally. Co-ordination is a central problem of the organisation. The organisation cannot be said to be efficient unless it attempts to achieve co-ordination by creating a sound organisation structure. It should not come from the above. These two forms of coordination are described below. The individual member must know what is expected of him by his superior. All individuals, groups and departments should have a common purpose, that is, achieve the organisational goals. Techniques of Coordination in Management – 2 Main Techniques: Specific and General Techniques, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 6 Common Techniques, Techniques of Coordination in Management –, Techniques of Coordination in Management – 6 Main Techniques, 6. Integrating means to unify diverse time and goal orientations of interdependent departments in a manner that they jointly contribute to accomplishment of overall organisational objectives. Coordination therefore requires not only “hard” skills like knowing how to organize a needs assessment or lead the development of a contingency plan, but also it requires less tangible skills. It is the management of interdependence. Management Basics; Coordination and Cooperation; Coordination and Cooperation . Once the problem facing the interdependent departments has been satisfactorily solved, the task force may be wound up. In this review we begin by discussing the origins of interest in coordination, tracing some of the classic perspectives. All departments, sections etc. This brings uniformity of action because everybody understands the programmes and policies in the same sense. 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