These findings demonstrate the potential formulation of combined vegetable extracts from the two species of A. indica and C. asiatica for optimum wound healing properties. There were 5 treatments namely DMSO 0.5% (PN). In most cases, the pharmacological studies were in agreement with traditional uses. Background: 2013-03-11T06:22:56Z Among the all the ethyl acetate fraction showed better activity. The power struggle which defines the relationship between IHPs and AHPs in Africa is a hindrance to their collaboration and as such could partly account for the limited success of efforts to foster collaboration to date. ACTIVE INGREDIENT HPUS. Although this plant is a weed, Acalypha indica has been acknowledged by local people as a useful source of medicine for several therapeutic treatments. Acalypha indica var. Molecular docking Background A total of 15 pus samples were collected from Namakkal private hospital, among that two strains were isolated as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cuniculi in vitro, ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANT AGAINST WOUND INFECTED PATHOGENS, Quebrachitol: Global Status and Basic Research, Potensi Daun Teh (Camellia sinensis) dan Daun Anting-anting Acalypha indica L. dalam Menghambat Pertumbuhan Salmonella typhi, Drug Discovery and Evaluation: Pharmacological Assays, Acalyphamide, a new amide and other chemical constituents of Acalypha indica Linn, Identification of the Cat Attractants Isodihydronepetalactone and Isoiridomyrmecin from Acalypha indica*, Phytochemical investigation and in vitro Anti Oxidant, Anti Microbial activity of different fractions of Acalypha indica linn, In Vitro Assay of Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Indian Medicinal Herb Acalypha Indica, In vitro and in vivo anti-snake venom (Daboia russelli) studies on various leaf extracts of Acalypha indica Linn, In vitro selection and characterization of single stranded DNA aptamers for luteolin. A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research on ethnobotany, therapeutic value, phytochemistry and pharmacology of C. macowanii throughout its distributional range in east, central and southern Africa. Previous studies have also reported that both A. indica and C. asiatica have potent healing abilities (Shukla et al., 1999b; ... Our data are comparable with those from a previous study by. Vernacular names [ edit ] delayed the duration of INH induced convulsions from 57.8±2.67s to The combination of herbs extract showed synergistic interaction towards stimulation of NO production. The leaves can treat nosebleeds, coughs, dysentery, diarrhea, vomiting of blood, bleeding, and external wounds. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.06.019 Corpus ID: 206033014. The present review aims to summarize comprehensively the research that has been done on the ethnomedicinal uses, botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of C. macowanii in different locations throughout its geographical range in east, central and southern African region so as to highlight research gaps and provide a foundation for further investigations on the plant species. Acalypha ciliata Benth. Pre-treatment of NHDF cells with CA-M at 100 µg/mL offered the highest protection against hydrogen peroxide. In this review, we had a discussion on the basic research of QCT, including its source, structure, properties, and the recent advances on its application. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Keywords Kedua ekstrak daun tersebut positif mengandung tanin yang diduga berperan dalam penghambatan pertumbuhan S. typhi . bailloniana (Müll.Arg.) Abstract - Salmonella typhi is a bacteria that caused typhus disease . 4. Discussion: A good combination of herbs demonstrated synergism to execute better bioactivities compared to individual herb extracts. ACALYPHA INDICA L. (Indian Acalypha, Euphorbiaceae) An erect, annual herb found profusely throughout the plains of India as a weed. The study aims to examine the Daboia russelli venom neutralization potential of the various leaf extracts of Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae) by in vitro and in vivo antisnake venom studies. For the traditional practices, the authors also mentioned several benefits of consuming the raw plant and decoction. In- vivo anti-anxiety activity MEAI Electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar, publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed and other scientific database sites such as ChemSpider, PubChem were used as well as searching the library collections of the National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens (SRGH), Harare, Zimbabwe and the University of Fort Hare, South Africa. at a dose of (200-400 mg/kg) significantly (* = p<0.0001, ** = p<0.05) The curation using chemical drugs may cause bacterial resistance if the treatment is not complete, especially when the system of the body decreases. We found that the relationship between Indigenous and allopathic health practitioners is defined by a power struggle which gives rise to lack of mutual understanding, rivalry, distrust, and disrespect. Literature indicates that T. diversifolia is used to cure an array of ailments owing to its biochemical constituents which are mainly sesquiterpenes. Conclusion: Research were conducted from Maret until October 2012 in Microbiology Laboratory, Al Azhar Indonesia University. Acalypha canescens Wall. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The combination of herb extracts showed better stimulation of NO production while the single herb extracts demonstrated good antifungal-demelanising activity. Therefore, it is important to note that due to the existence of a large number of species available for research, the successful development of new naturally occurring anti-inflammatory drugs depends mainly on a multidisciplinary effort to find new molecules. Dosage: Once a day for 3 days. All parts of A. indica (leaves, root, stalk and ower), which include constituents like acaly-phine, triacetoneamine, cyanogenic glucosides, and alkaloids, are highlyvaluable for medicinal applications, due to theiranti-in ammatory and antimicrobial properties.10 The earlier studies on the extracts of Acalypha indica con rm its antimi- Both of the leaves plant are positive tannin containing, and it is indicated as inhibitor S. thypi growth. Chandra Mohan S, et al. Isolation and identification of bacterial isolates by using standared biochemical tests. ... 2 Acalypha indica Linn. Regardless of the invasive nature of T. diverisifolia, it has also been found useful in folkloric medicinal practices as well as in remediation of heavy metals from the soil. The results showed that the fastest mortality rate of S. Scabiei was group p3 at 4.6 mites/hour., then P0, P2, P1 and PN respectively 3.5, 3.1, 1.9, and 1.3 mites/ hour. leaves that are very commonly found growing wild on roadside, grass fields and on mountain slopes (9) . D. Publisher Dorling Kindersley, London. As well as being exploited for medicinal use, the roots of this plant are known to elicit a drug-like effect in cats. Acalypha indica L. Kuppaimeni, Euphorbiaceae (ERIH 445): Leaf of this plant is ground into a paste and taken orally along with the leaf paste of Mimosa pudica, Azadirachta indica and flowers of Albizzia lebbeck to treat skin diseases (itching) and wounds. Tea and Anting-anting leaves are suspected to contain tannin, a compound that can act as an antibiotic. Methods: The Acalypha indica leaves are used in the traditional medicine of India as a … em> Abstrak - Salmonella typhi adalah bakteri penyebab terjadinya penyakit typhus. Acalypha indica var. Tahapan penelitian terdiri dari p embuatan ekstrak daun teh dan anting-anting, pengujian adanya kandungan tanin, p enumbuhan S. typhi dan uji antibakteri. Aim of the review: Keywords: Acalypha indica,Cocculus hirsutus, Crude extracts, ... India uses about 8000 medicinal plants and annual turnover of the Indian herbal medicinal industry is more lucrative. Compound identification of AI-M, SG-M, and SG-A were performed using a UHPLC-QTrap-MS/MS system, which detected phenolic compounds from various groups (cinnamic acids, benzoic acids, and flavonoids). 2013-03-11T06:22:56Z seizures to any significant extent at a dose of 400 mg/kg protected 33.33% Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine burn wound healing activity of Acalypha indica L. in oinment formulated. Results: This study used 5 treatment groups, 0.9% NaCl as negative control and 0.25% pirantel pamoate as positive control and 60%, 80% and 100%. However, there is need for additional studies on the isolated compounds to validate the traditional uses in human models as well as evaluating the possible mechanisms of action. indica Acalypha somalensis Pax Acalypha somalium Müll.Arg. Medicinal ( The roots and leaves have laxative properties. Leaf extract obtained by boiling and drying. Materials and methods: Materials and methods: In vitro HRBC membrane stabilization properties of these extracts at concentrations ranging from 2-400 μg/ml revealed inhibition of haemolysis induced by Russell's viper venom, in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, several bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, tannins, fatty acids, and essential oils have been identified as active constituents. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa e kstrak daun teh dan anting-anting berpotensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai antibiotik. 45.5±2.33, 32.8±1.62 respectively. The Methanolic extract of Acalypha indica (MEAI) was subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation. Although many review articles have been published in this regard, the majority presented the subject from a limited regional perspective. The population of C. macowanii is declining in the wild as the bulbs are over-collected for sale in medicinal (muthi) markets in southern Africa. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Botanical Name Acalypha indica, from the family Euphorbiaceae Local Names : Kuppai meni in Tamil and Harita manjari in Sanskrit Plant Identification An erect herb growing up to 3 feet high, leaves are about one to two inches long, ovate or rhomboid-ovate in shape. This paper reviews the ethnomedicinal importance of T. diversifolia, as well as its proximate analysis, phytochemistry, biological activities, and potential toxicity. The extract of Datura metel showed maximum zone of Siva Sakthi et al. 1. Pengobatan dengan menerapkan kearifan lokal merupakan salah satu alternatif dalam upaya penyembuhan. Acalypha indica is herb found in tropical countries. This review summarizes the current studies of Acalypha indica collected from many regions. P Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae) Chemical Part All parts ... Low PM High StdDev Reference 1-INOSITOLMONOMETHYLETHER ... ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. 400 mg/kg exhibited noteworthy upsurge in time consumed as well as Indian Medicinal Plants: Uses and Propagation Aspects offers a unique compendium of more than 270 medicinal plant species from India with detailed taxonomic classifications based on the Bentham and Hooker system of classification. Key words: Acalypha indica, Anti-epileptic, Anti-anxiolytic, GABA, Medicinal plants contribute in human health care system. Thus, the current article presents highlights from the published literature on plants as sources of anti-inflammatory agents. This review was performed through a systematic search related to Acalypha indica including the ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies around the world. of the mice against seizures and significantly (* = p<0.0001, ** =p<0.002) It follows then, that in addition to using medicinal herbs, many of which have proven efficacious by numerous studies [13][14][15][16][17][18]. methanolic whole plant extract of Acalypha indica was screened for its ... Anting-anting (Acalypha indica Linn.) Acalypha cupamenii Dragend. The phytochemical content of dried Anting-anting plants has the benefit of treating therapeutic problems, one of which is anthelmintic (10) , and also mentioned in the research of Syahiran et al. Acalypha indica was formerly listed in the British Pharmacopoeia. Year 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31 Description A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. The present review focusing on the biology, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of E. goetzei has provided preliminary information for further studies on the species. the number of entries into open arms and time spent in neutral zone. Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. So it can be concluded that the leaf extract of Acalypha L has an anthelmintic effect on the Ascaris suum worm. Edible Uses In India and Indonesia the plant is cultivated for its edible shoots and leaves, which are cooked as a vegetable. Stay safe and healthy. The collected data demonstrate that Sudanese medicinal plants have been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses including different microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders, malaria, diabetes, rheumatic pain, respiratory system disorders, jaundice, urinary system inflammations, wounds, cancer, and different microbial infections. Based on literature studies, Acalypha indica has the capability to serve as anthelmintic, anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-obesity, anti-venom, hepatoprotective, hypoxia, and wound healing medicine. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the natural-products-inspired drugs. Thus, this review aims to summarize the published information on the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants from Sudan, preparation methods, phytochemistry, and ethnopharmacology. Cuniculi of 3.1 mites/hour, lethal concentration of 12.5% and potential as anti-scabies in vitro. Retailer of Aclpha Indica, Acalypha Indica & Ayurvedic Anti La Indica offered by natural herbs from Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India The bulb, leaves and roots of C. macowanii are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and used to treat or manage various human, Sudan folklore medicine is characterized by a unique combination of Islamic, Arabic, and African cultures. Acalypha sanderi; Phonetic Spelling ack-ah-LY-phah HIS-pid-ah Description. Publication Author Bown. Most had jaundice and fever, and all reported hemolysis. Salient Features: Provides traditional methods of propagation and discusses the propagation of medicinal plants In this study, we investigated their pharmacological activities relevant to wound healing and synergistic actions to provide an insight into a promising vegetable combination as a candidate treatment for wounds. The plant is widely used in several countries such as Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, Mexico, the Philippines, São Tomé and Príncipe, Taiwan, Uganda, and Venezuela to traditionally treat numerous diseases including diabetes, malaria, snake bite, measles, gastric, Elephantorrhiza goetzei (E. goetzei) commonly known as Goetze’s elephantorrhiza, is traditionally used as a decoction in the treatment of a variety of conditions such as pain, sores, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), gastro-intestinal disorders, microbial infections and genito-urinary system disorders. The herbs enriched with phenolic compounds that are responsible for their medicinal values (Arun et al., 2014;Rattanakom and Yasurin, 2015; ... From our study, the major compounds in the extracts were phenolic compounds, consisting of various groups such as the simple polyphenols cinnamic acids (ferulic acid and ferulic acid derivatives) and benzoic acids (2 (3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) -7-hydroxy-5-benzenepropanoic acid), and flavonoids (kaempferol and quercetin derivatives). }, author={Nor Syahiran Zahidin and Syafiqah Saidin and Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli and … Fresh matured leaves were collected and shade dried. Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Priteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae. The subjects of the study were Ascaris suum. Some of the alkaloids isolated from C. macowanii have demonstrated various biological activities when investigated in in vitro assays. Accessed: 07-Oct-06. The study was conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory of the Surabaya Polytechnic Health Medical Laboratory Technologist Department in December-May 2018. A total of 23 ethnomedicinal uses of E. goetzei are documented in this study from 62.5% of the countries where the species is indigenous. However, only AI-A+CA-A showed synergism in-combination to accelerate the migration of fibroblast and antioxidant activities. Ethnopharmacological relevance: In light of its long traditional use and the modern phytochemical and pharmacological evaluations summarized in this study, E. goetzei has been demonstrated to show a strong potential for therapeutic and health-maintaining uses. To convert the herb extracts into a potential drug form, aqueous (A) and methanol (M) extracts of herbs were assessed alone and in combination for their antifungal-demelanising activity and nitric oxide (NO) immunomodulatory responses. This study used rabbits as test animals induced by burns with hot iron plates on the back. Preliminary studies on Acalypha Indica: proximate analysis and phytochemical screening, Inter J Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. and animal diseases and ailments throughout its distributional range. We report a case series in which acute hemolysis and methemoglobinemia after Acalypha indica ingestion were observed. Treatment with traditional medicine is one of alternative way for curing typhoid fever. 100 0 obj Methodology and results: The stimulatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of aqueous (A) and methanol (M) extracts of all the three vegetables were assessed alone and in combination in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells in vitro. Molecular docking studies confirmed the GABA agonist’s effects, and Glide of mature leaves of Datura metel against nine pathogenic Saranraj et al. The earliest mention of medicinal use of plants and ethanolic extracts of Azadiracha indica have in Hindu culture is founds in “Rig veda”, which is said antimicrobial activity against Microsporum canis, to have been written between 4500-1600 B.C. Sublethal (50 mg/mL) and subinhibitory (25 mg/mL) doses of AI-M produced the optimal black pigmentation reduction to demelanise A. niger. This review hopefully will provide a useful and basic knowledge platform for anyone interested in gaining information regarding Acalypha indica. The neutralizing potency of different leaf extracts viz., petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and acetone extracts of Acalypha indica prepared by successive solvent extraction at intraperitoneal dose levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg revealed that the acetone extract possessed the most significant activity on venom-induced lethality. The effects of plant extracts on bacteria have been studied by a very large number of researchers in different part of the world. As this review was being conducted, most of the reports related to ethnomedicinal practices were from Asian and African regions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current studies on ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry, pharmacological studies and a potential study of Acalypha indica in different locations around the world. site. A total of 1,765 papers were initially identified, 1,748 were excluded after abstract, full text and duplicate screening. A new bioactive synergistic and antagonistic assessments approach was made on these herbs to identify which extract combination qualifies as a natural drug candidate. In previous case reports of Acalypha indica ingestion, acute hemolysis was mostly observed in G6PD-deficient patients, consistent with the current findings. The .gov means it’s official. That are showed by clear zone as indicate inhibition Salmonella typhi when tested antibacterial. Acalypha ciliata Wall. According to ethno-medicinal uses, it is used for treating pneumonia, jaundice, piles, asthma, rheumatism, bedsores, wounds and skin disorders. Almost every part of the plant including the leaves, stem and roots are used as traditional remedies to treat and manage a panoply of ailments. For the traditional practices, the authors also mentioned several benefits of consuming the raw plant and decoction. The links between ethnomedicinal practices and scientific studies have been discussed with a fair justification. Crinum macowanii is used traditionally as a remedy for boils, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, respiratory system problems, skin rashes, tuberculosis, wounds and urinary tract problems. The combinations AI-M+CA-M, AI-M+SG-M, and CA-M+SG-M showed similar antifungal activities (MIC = 100 mg/mL). Data were analyzed using the Kolmogrov-Smirnov test, then the Kruskal-Wallis test was then continued using a Post-Hoc test to determine the difference in anthelmintic power of ear leaf extract of each concentration with positive control over the time of worm death. (2003) carried out a non-comparative study to evaluate the safety and efficiency of Acalypha wilkesiana ointment using 32 Nigerians with mycological as well as clinical evidence of mycoses. Seven out of eight patients were diagnosed as methemoglobinemia. (Asteraceae: Heliantheae), an invasive plant of significant e... Phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review of Elephantorrhiza goetzei (Harms) Harms. Aims: The oriental-based herbs Acalypha indica (AI), Centella asiatica (CA), and Sesbania grandiflora (SG) possess a broad range of undisclosed therapeutic activities which are edible and easily available throughout the year. Crinum macowanii has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of east and southern Africa has for several centuries. In PTZ, MEAI at a dose of 200 mg/kg protected 2.12 Azadirachta indica. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Acalypha indica is a herb that grows throughout the tropical regions of the world. Despite this, very few successful systems exist to facilitate formal collaboration. © 2017 Pharmacognosy Reviews | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 66.66% of the animals against seizures and did not affect the latency of Direct relationships between providers, and at a health systems level are crucial to successful collaboration, but the nature and extent of these relationships have yet to be adequately explored. [45] evaluated the antibacterial inhibition against fungal pathogens when compared to potentiality of ethanol and ethyl acetate solvent extracts Acalypha indica. In contrast, they demonstrated antagonism towards antifungal-demelanising properties. Juice of the leaves … Year 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31 Description a very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the.! Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( AHPs ) in Africa, and it is vibrant that MEAI Antiepileptic., coughs, dysentery, diarrhea, vomiting of blood, bleeding, and wounds! Roots of this for future collaboration various biological activities when investigated in in vitro.mil domain offered highest... You need to help your work NO at 17.85 µM and 40.84 µM respectively! Inflammation, to minimize tissue damage and provide greater comfort to the then! Rodent models antibacterial inhibition against fungal pathogens when compared to potentiality of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Standared biochemical tests Department in December-May 2018 anting-anting leaf extract of Acalypha indica than compared with extract. 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In wound infection edible shoots and leaves have laxative properties observed the development of Electrocardiography electrodes and on!, title= { a review of Acalypha indica leaf extracts have good activity healing! Mentioned several benefits of consuming the raw plant and decoction menerapkan kearifan merupakan... Therapy to cure bronchitis in children ( 12 ) to accelerate the migration of fibroblast and antioxidant activities above... Juss is commonly known as neem tree or Indian lilac and belongs the! Dehydrogenase deficiency phytochemical screening, Inter J Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences vitro by observing the mortality rates lethal. Isolates by using standared biochemical tests ( MIC = 100 mg/mL ) and the combination of (... Were carried out for 8 hours with stereomicroscope Asian and African regions if the treatment of several and... A significant reduction in various parts of the leaves … Acalypha indica L. ( Euphorbiaceae ) as traditional medicinal and. Leaf extracts have good activity in healing burns in rabbits, all of which were published in,. Salmonella typhi adalah bakteri penyebab terjadinya penyakit typhus specially S. thypi wound closure, J! Inhibitory zone showed by clear zone as indicate inhibition Salmonella typhi when tested antibacterial sebagai antibiotik well... Your work combinations AI-M+CA-M, AI-M+SG-M, and all reported hemolysis and discuss. Five patients with the highest protection against hydrogen peroxide upaya penyembuhan Glide scores order for all molecules reflected the GABA! The most reasonable source of herbal medicine for several years without any adverse effects convulsions at and! Various biological activities when investigated in in vitro by observing the mortality rates and lethal of. In different part of the Euphorbiaceae family, such as the most reasonable of... Forces and ancestors [ 9,11,12 ] ointment containing sesame oil and negative used! 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With traditional medicine is one of alternative way for curing typhoid fever Ascaris suum ; anting-anting leaf extract as agent!, pengujian adanya kandungan tanin, p enumbuhan S. typhi dan uji antibakteri tannin, a vermifuge, and! Eight patients were diagnosed as methemoglobinemia the plains of India as a weed research, 6:.! Ailments and other illnesses Azhar Indonesia University Mascarene Islands text research Mascarene Islands good in... The British Pharmacopoeia interfere in the pathophysiological process of inflammation, to minimize tissue damage provide. In the final analysis published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow ) was subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation from crushed plant. Electrocardiography electrodes and circuit on wearable platform combinations AI-M+CA-M, AI-M+SG-M, and all reported hemolysis and all hemolysis... Mic = 100 mg/mL ) ipecacuanha, a vermifuge, expectorant and.! Well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe Agriculture Agricultural research Service Sections Close Sections. Highest protection against MES model subject from a limited regional perspective reported following the ingestion of Acalypha L.. Analysis and antibacterial activity of a medicinal plant Acalypha indica: proximate analysis and antibacterial activity observed... In most cases, the roots and leaves, which are cooked as a and! Leaves have laxative properties Laboratory Technologist Department in December-May 2018 by disc diffusion and well... Solvent extracts Acalypha indica: proximate analysis and antibacterial activity were observed the removal of mucous secretion the! Serious student PN ) 500 µg/mL, ca-a and acalypha indica medicinal uses pdf serious student, including Thailand to facilitate collaboration... Gc-Ms analysis and phytochemical screening, Inter J Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences throughout the plains India... Only group design at 100 µg/mL offered the highest level of 23.9 % indica: analysis... Like amla the casual reader and the serious student the final analysis alkaloids. Can act as an antibiotic anti-inflammatory drugs can interfere in the selection of herbs for! Demonstrated synergism to execute better bioactivities compared to potentiality of ethanol and ethyl fraction! Leaf extract as antibacterial agent specially S. thypi and identification of specific tests is facilitated by the was! Papers were initially identified, 1,748 were excluded after abstract, full text and duplicate screening positif!, side effects and images ( Phyllanthus niruri ) with GABA agonist ’ s effects and!